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Voyages of Columbus
 
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Columbus set sail and found land in the Western Sea, but he did not find the riches of China or India and his discoveries turned into a big disappointment
Views: 23924 TzionTzion
Sea Route to Reach India - Gujarati | Iken Edu
 
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Sea Route to Reach India - Gujarati | Iken Edu This module explains about Columbus, Vasco-da-Gama, end of Portugal Rule and Dutch people. For more videos visit https://www.youtube.com/ikenedu Follow us on twitter https://twitter.com/ikenedu Like us on https://www.facebook.com/ikenconnect
Views: 4723 Iken Edu
Efforts to find out new sea routes to India
 
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Gujarat State Board Standard 9 - History English Medium
Views: 16360 TOPScorer Com
Biography of Christopher Columbus for Children: Famous Explorers for Kids - FreeSchool
 
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https://patreon.com/freeschool - Help support more content like this! Christopher Columbus has long been touted as the explorer who discovered America and proved the world was round. That view of things is not correct, however! Come and learn about the voyages of Christopher Columbus, his ships, and what really happened in this historically accurate and child-appropriate biography of the famous explorer. Like this video if you want to see more BIOGRAPHIES! Subscribe to FreeSchool: https://www.youtube.com/user/watchfreeschool?sub_confirmation=1 Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/watchFreeSchool Check our our companion channel, FreeSchool Mom! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTcEtHRQhqiCZIIb77LyDmA And our NEW channel for little ones, FreeSchool Early Birds! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3OV62x86XHwaqsxLsuy8dA Music: Jaunty Gumption - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Other music in this video: Tu Pauperum Refugium by Josquin Des Prez.
Views: 400230 Free School
Early explorers of America (1492- 1502)           Animated map              From Columbus to Coelho
 
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An animated map of the first expeditions and voyages to the Americas The discovery of a new sea route to America by Columbus and the expeditions of Cabot, Lavrador, Ojeda, Pinzon, Vespucci, Cabral and Coelho. Music Crusade - Video Classica von Kevin MacLeod ist unter der Lizenz "Creative Commons Attribution" (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) lizenziert. Quelle: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1100884 Künstler: http://incompetech.com/ Epic journey Yung Logos
Views: 76 Corvus
ROUTE OF VASCO DA GAMA ANIMATION ON A MAP
 
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ROUTE OF VASCO DA GAMA ANIMATION ON A MAP Gama, Vasco da (1469?-1524), Portuguese explorer and navigator, who was the first European to reach India by the sea route. Da Gama was born in Sines, Alemtejo (now Baixo Alentejo). In his youth he participated in the wars against Castile. Commissioned by Manuel, king of Portugal, to reach India by sea, da Gama sailed from Lisbon with four ships on July 9, 1497. In November he rounded the Cape of Good Hope (first rounded in 1488 by the Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias) and anchored at Malindi on the east coast of Africa. With the aid of a pilot secured through Indian merchants in that port, da Gama directed his course eastward and on May 20, 1498, reached Calicut (now Kozhikode) on the Malabar Coast of India. Because of the hostility of Muslim merchants, he could not establish a Portuguese trading station there. After fighting his way out of the harbor of Calicut, he returned to Portugal in 1499. Da Gama was welcomed with praise, rewarded financially, and permitted to use the prefix Dom with his name. To follow up the discoveries of da Gama, the Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral was immediately dispatched to India, and he established a Portuguese trading post in Calicut. When news reached Portugal that those stationed in Calicut by Cabral had been massacred, da Gama, who had been given the title of admiral of India, was sent to avenge that act. On the route to Calicut he established Portuguese colonies at Mozambique and Sofala (now part of Mozambique), in east Africa. After arriving in Calicut, da Gama subdued the inhabitants and forced the raja to make peace. Bearing a rich cargo of spice, he left India and sailed back to Portugal in 1503. For the next 20 years he saw no active sea duty. He received the title of count of Vidigueira in 1519, and in 1524 he was named viceroy and sent to India to correct the mounting corruption among the Portuguese authorities there. Da Gama reached India in the fall of 1524, but he died in Cochin only three months after his arrival. If you like, give it up and share it so that I can continue collaborating with more videos like this. Subscribe to my channel Inerciauruguay AND YOU CAN FIND OUT EVERY TIME I SUIT A VIDEO LIKE THIS, GREETINGS
Views: 5558 Inerciauruguay
Food globalization in Prehistory
 
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About the Talk After Christopher Columbus opened up sea routes between the Old Word and the New, the world’s food supply was transformed, with major crops moving between continents. Several millennia earlier, an equally radical transformation opened up land routes across the Old World, and major crops moved between eastern and western Eurasia. However, this earlier episode of food globalization has only recently come to light, thanks to novel possibilities of scientific archaeology. In this seminar talk, the results of those novel methods, and the various crop movements of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC are explained. Professor Jones will go on to consider some key questions about those movements: first of all, how they happened and what were the corresponding movements of people; secondly, what were consequences of those movements, for the different societies emerging in different regions of the Old World. Date: March 28, 2018 (Wednesday) Time: 12:00 - 13:30
Views: 3 HKUST Library
Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened
 
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Subscribe for more videos: http://goo.gl/Z8E50 An educational animation which recounts the four voyages of Columbus. Hope you enjoy! Bibliography at bottom of description AUTHOR'S NOTE: This video is meant to give a non-bias account of the events which unfolded when Columbus and his crew made contact with the people of the Caribbean. Of course, I was not able to fit everything into the video; I had to omit details, such as the fact that the Taino were not the only people that Columbus encountered (there were also the Ciguayo tribe and Carib cannibals). A second particular is that not all fault should lie directly on Columbus' shoulders. His crew of 1,200 for the second journey consisted partly of convicts and landless nobles, the worst type of people with which to build a settlement. Another fact is that Columbus grew up in societies (Genoa, then Portugal) that kept domestic slaves. I have no political agenda for making this video. I am a student of history and I have tried to give an account of Columbus' journeys that is as close as we can possibly get to the truth. I will I admit that I am not a fan of Columbus. I think he was cruel, even for his time. We cannot judge a 15th-century human from a 21st-century perspective; but even for the 15th century, he was an awful arbiter. Sources: Bergreen, Laurence. Columbus: The Four Voyages. Viking Penguin, 2011. Carman, Harry J., and Harold C. Syrett. A History of the American People. Vol. 1. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952. Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. 1492; The Year the World Began. Harper Collins e-books, 2009. Hale, Edward E. The Life of Christopher Columbus from His Own Letters and Journals. Rockville, Maryland: Arc Manor, 2008. Haywood, John. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. New York: Metro Books, 2000. Jotischky, Andrew, and Caroline Hull. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. London: The Penguin Group, 2005. Loewen, James, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. New York: Touchstone, 1995. Lybyer, A. H., "The Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade," The English Historical Review, Vol. 30, No. 120. (Oct., 1915), pp. 577-588. Mann, Charles. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. New York: Vintage Books, 1995. Morison, Samuel Eliot. Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Boston: Little Brown and Co. 1942. Phillips, William & Phillips, Carla, The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge University Press, 1992. Pickering, Keith. The Columbus Navigation Homepage. http://www.columbusnavigation.com/cctl.shtml Pohl, John. The Conquistador: 1492-1550. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2001 . Sale, Kirkpatrick. Christopher Columbus and the Conquest of Paradise. London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2006. Scafetta, Joesph Jr. Columbus and the Indians: Friend of Foe? http://www.osia.org/documents/Columbus_FriendorFoe.pdf The Most Important Maps Since the Dawn of Printing, Part I: Tradition and Innovation. Arader Galleries. Udovitch, A. L. '"Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages'", The American Historical Review, Vol. 91, No. 1 (Feb., 1986), 92. Varela, C. Cristobal Colon: Textos y Documentos Completos. Madrid: Alianza, 1984. Vignaud, Henry. "Columbus: A Spaniard and a Jew", The American Historical Review, Vol. 18, No. 3 (April, 1913), pp. 505-512. Wilford, John Noble. The Mysterious History of Christopher Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy. (1991) Young, Filson. Christopher Columbus and the New World of His Discovery. Vol. 6. London: E. Grant Richards, 1906.
Views: 2503636 Bad Crayfish Productions
Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners. Crash Course: World History #21
 
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In which John Green teaches you about the beginning of the so-called Age of Discovery. You've probably heard of Christopher Columbus, who "discovered" America in 1492, but what about Vasco da Gama? How about Zheng He? Columbus gets a bad rap from many modern historians, but it turns out he was pretty important as far as the history of the world goes. That said, he wasn't the only pioneer plying the seas in the 1400s. In Portugal, Vasco da Gama was busy integrating Europe into the Indian Ocean Trade by sailing around Africa. Chinese admiral Zheng He was also traveling far and wide in the largest wooden ships ever built. Columbus, whether portrayed as hero or villain, is usually credited as the great sailor of the 15th century, but he definitely wasn't the only contender. What better way to settle this question than with a knock-down, drag-out, no holds barred, old-fashioned battle royal? We were going to make it a cage match, but welding is EXPENSIVE. Resources: The Age of Reconnaissance by JH Parry - An explanation of the technologies that made these voyages possible, and a nice detailed record of many of the important voyages. http://dft.ba/-discovery When China Ruled the Sea by Louise Levathes: A history of the Ming dynasty's ventures into maritime exploration. http://dft.ba/-zhenghedragon Unknown Seas by Ronald Watkins: A highly readable account of Vasco da Gama's introduction of europe into the Indian Ocean trade. http://dft.ba/-vasco Crash Course World History is now available on DVD! http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-world-history-the-complete-series-dvd-set Follow us! @thecrashcourse @realjohngreen @raoulmeyer @crashcoursestan @saysdanica @thoughtbubbler Like us! ‪http://www.facebook.com/youtubecrashcourse Follow us again! ‪http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse
Views: 2536459 CrashCourse
Why was Columbus Looking for Asia?
 
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How did the medieval age end? We use the term Renaissance, or more academically the early modern period, but what divides them? I’ve talked a little previously about Columbus, and his voyage to find Asia by sailing west. But what I want to answer today is, why was he trying that? Step Back is made possible by the generous contributions of viewers like you, consider helping at https://www.patreon.com/stepbackhistory You can also help by getting your hands on Step Back merchandise over at https://shop.spreadshirt.com/StepBack/ Step Back is a history channel releasing videos biweekly that endeavors to go past the names, dates, and battles you might find elsewhere. It invites you to take a step back, consider the past and how it connects to today. We search for the quirky, unconventional, and just plain weird parts of our collective story. SUBSCRIBE and join us! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCxTdWpLJurbGlFMWOwXWG_A Help out the future of the channel by taking a 2 minute survey over at: http://www.TristanJohnson.org/survey Keep up to date with our e-mail updates: http://www.TristanJohnson.org/newsletter More stuff at: http://www.TristanJohnson.org/step-back Connect with Step Back: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/stepbackchannel Twitter: https://twitter.com/TristanPEJ Sub-Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/stepback/ Read More: Ralph Davis - The Rise of the Atlantic Economies Music: Juniper by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1100186 Artist: http://incompetech.com/ Photo credits: Antoni63 Phirosiberia Mindriot fdecomite sara marlowe Bigdaddy1204 Rosemania Oren Khateeb88 Gligan Arild Vågen Rabe! …trialsanderrors The Red Hat of Pat Ferrick Zscout370 Grin20 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "A Brief History of Germany... Before there was a Germany" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyN6PGWvkaQ -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 10073 Step Back History
Chritopher Columbus
 
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Christopher Columbus was an Italian-born navigator who sailed in the service of Spain. He is commonly described as the discoverer of the New World — America. Although Columbus was in search of a westward route to Asia by sea, the discoveries he did make were more important and valuable than the route he failed to find. It is certain, however, that Columbus was not the first European to cross the Atlantic. Documentary evidence supports claims that the Vikings reached the New World about A.D. 1000. And there is good circumstantial evidence, though no documentation, to suggest that both Portuguese and English fishing vessels made the crossing during the 14th century; they probably landed in Newfoundland and Labrador. Columbus, though he sailed a different route, followed many Europeans who earlier had crossed the Atlantic. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/all-about-christopher-columbus-1451-1506
Views: 98 Tuy24
The Search for a Sea Route to India: DaGama and Dias
 
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For educational use only. This is a video from Discovery Education for use in my seventh grade classroom.
Views: 232 Jay Kelley
Northern Arctic Sea Route
 
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La rotta prevista per il Passaggio a Nord Est di Best Explorer
Views: 533 veladurasailing
Spanish Queen was a "Venture Capitalist" who Funded Columbus to Find a New Sea Route to India #7
 
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Join me for my fb LIVE Broadcasts Follow me on facebook.com/RajivMalhotra.Official Duke University, Edit #7
Voage of Discovery part 2: Passage to Venezuala Around the World Semester at Sea
 
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We spend three days crossing the Carib heading for the land of Chavez. What does it mean to become a foreigner in the world. Step aboard the GREAT WHITE MOTHER The name "Caribbean" is derived from the Caribs, one of the dominant American Indian groups in the region at the time of European contact during the late 15th century. After the discovery of the West Indies by Christopher Columbus in 1492, the Spanish term Antillas was assigned to the lands; stemming from this, "Sea of the Antilles" is a common alternative name for the Caribbean Sea in various European languages. During the first century of development, the Spanish dominance was undisputed. Tulum, Maya city on the coast of the Caribbean in the state of Quintana Roo (Mexico). The Caribbean Sea was an unknown body of water to the populations of Eurasia until 1492, when Christopher Columbus first sailed into Caribbean waters on a quest to find a sea route to Asia. At that time the Western Hemisphere in general was unknown to Europeans. Following the discovery of the islands by Columbus, the area was quickly colonised by several Western cultures (initially Spain, then later Portugal, England, the Dutch Republic, France and Denmark). Following the colonisation of the Caribbean islands, the Caribbean Sea became a busy area for European-based marine trading and transport, and this commerce eventually attracted piracy. Today the area is home to 22 island territories and borders 12 continental countries. Due to the abundance of sunshine, year-round tropical temperatures moderated by the almost constant trade winds, and the great variety of scenic destinations to visit, during the second half of the 20th century on into the 21st, the Caribbean Sea became a popular place for tourism.
Views: 255 Carl Wikman
Christopher Columbus
 
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Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus was born in 1451 in beautiful Genoa, Italy. He was raised in the shadows of medieval gates behind him and the open sea in front of him -- the perfect backdrop for a boy looking for adventure. Christopher's father was a respectable middle-class man who made a career of weaving wool. But Columbus had bigger plans than spending his life working with sheep fur, because he had heard the call of the ocean, the lure of the sea. Christopher Columbus set about learning his trade as a teenager, traveling the trade routes across Europe and becoming an expert in navigation. He may have also helped with a bit of “privateering” in the war against the Moors. Although Christopher Columbus reached his goal of becoming a sea captain, he was not content to simply follow the traditional trade routes and make a nice living. No, he had big plans, and he was willing to risk everything to make them a reality. During this period, land trade between India, China, and Europe dwindled, because the Muslims had effectively created a blockade of the trade routes, including the famous Silk Road. Many Europeans were wondering, "How do we solve this trade problem?" Along comes a mathematician named Paolo Toscanelli, toiling away quietly at a cathedral in Florence, Italy, who proposes a new theory of reaching the East by sailing west. Then along comes Christopher Columbus, who believes he's called by God to find a new trade route, and help fulfill the Great Commission. However, before Christopher Columbus could set sail, he needed official sponsorship from a throne. So around the year 1485, Columbus came up with a bold proposal. After many attempts, Christopher Columbus was finally allowed into the royal court of Spain where he made his big pitch to the monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella. Christopher Columbus had found his royal patrons, which took care of the financing he needed for ships, supplies, and crews. He had even asked for "a piece of the action." If he discovered gold or other riches, he would get a percentage of everything, along with getting the naming rights and becoming the ruler of any new lands he discovered. On August 3rd, 1492, Christopher Columbus and some 90 other mariners boarded their ships in the Spanish town of Palos de la Frontera and set sail in the three famous boats, the "Nina," the "Pinta," and the "Santa Maria." It was here that Columbus gathered most of his crew, including the Pinzon brothers, local men famous for their navigational skills who would captain the "Nina" and "Pinta." Of course, Christopher Columbus captained the ship named after Saint Mary, the mother of Jesus, who was central figure at the monastery of Juan Perez, where Columbus ultimately found hope. Read more about Christopher Columbus: https://www.drivethruhistory.com/christopher-columbus
Views: 971 Drive Thru History
Interview Jean-Yves Terlain - Columbus
 
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Jean-Yves Terlain, capitaine et propriétaire du Columbus (en hivernage à Saint Gilles Croix de vie) nous parle des missions de Sea Shepherd. Filmé le 09 novembre 2014. Ceci est le premier reportage d'une série sensibilisant au monde des océans et de la nature.
Views: 603 Nat Woq
Northern Sea Route
 
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icebreaking on the whiskers, the Northern Sea Route
Views: 1878 Mikhail Rudnev
Horrible Secrets of VASCO DA GAMA || You never known
 
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Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈvaʃku ðɐ ˈɣɐmɐ]; c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea. His initial voyage to India (1497–1499) was the first to link Europe and Asia by an ocean route, connecting the Atlantic and the Indian oceans and, in this way, the West and the Orient. Da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India was significant and opened the way for an age of global imperialism and for the Portuguese to establish a long-lasting colonial empire in Asia. Traveling the ocean route allowed the Portuguese to avoid sailing across the highly disputed Mediterranean and traversing the dangerous Arabian Peninsula. The sum of the distances covered in the outward and return voyages made this expedition the longest ocean voyage ever made until then, far longer than a full voyage around the world by way of the Equator.[1] After decades of sailors trying to reach the Indies, with thousands of lives and dozens of vessels lost in shipwrecks and attacks, da Gama landed in Calicut on 20 May 1498. Unopposed access to the Indian spice routes boosted the economy of the Portuguese Empire, which was previously based along northern and coastal West Africa. The spices obtained from Southeast Asia were primarily pepper and cinnamon at first, but soon included other products, all new to Europe. Portugal maintained a commercial monopoly of these commodities for several decades. It would be a century later before other European powers such as the Netherlands and England, followed by France and Denmark, were able to challenge Portugal's monopoly and naval supremacy in the Cape Route. Da Gama led two of the Portuguese armadas destined for India, the first and the fourth. The latter was the largest and departed for India four years after his return from the first one. For his contributions, Da Gama was appointed the Governor of India in 1524, under the title of Viceroy, and given the newly created County of Vidigueira in 1519. Vasco da Gama remains a leading figure in the history of exploration. Numerous homages have been made worldwide to celebrate his explorations and accomplishments. The Portuguese national epic, Os Lusíadas, was written in his honour. His first trip to India is widely considered a milestone in world history, as it marked the beginning of a sea-based phase of global multiculturalism.[2] In March 2016, researchers announced that thousands of artifacts and vessel remains had been recovered from the ship Esmeralda, one of Da Gama's armada, found off the coast of Oman.
Views: 5823 Planet27
Story Map: Vasco Da Gama's First Voyage to India
 
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This Story Map was created as a course project requirement. This Story Map shows the story of how Vasco Da Gama made his first voyage to India. It was created using a host of tools including ArcGIS, Photoshop and PowerDirector. Credits: Countries' Shapefile from: Thematic Mapping Voiceover: Knayam Background Music from The Last of the Mohicans by Trevor Jones, Daniel Lanois & Randy Edelman.
Views: 49046 knayam91
Vasco da Gama: Portuguese Explorer - Fast Facts | History
 
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Nobleman and explorer Vasco da Gama established a trade route that linked Portugal directly with the Indian spice market. Learn how he managed to sail around Africa's Cape of Good Hope in this video. Check out exclusive HISTORY content: Website - http://www.history.com?cmpid=Social_YouTube_HistHome Twitter - https://twitter.com/history Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/History Google+ - https://plus.google.com/+HISTORY Bio Shorts Season 1 Episode 1 Biography features in-depth profiles of the exceptional people whose lives and times stir our imagination. An Emmy award-winning documentary series, Biography thrives on rich details, fascinating portraits and historical accuracy, seasoned with insider insights and observations. HISTORY®, now reaching more than 98 million homes, is the leading destination for award-winning original series and specials that connect viewers with history in an informative, immersive, and entertaining manner across all platforms. The network’s all-original programming slate features a roster of hit series, epic miniseries, and scripted event programming. Visit us at HISTORY.com for more info.
Views: 90828 HISTORY
Mapped History 1: Bartholomew Diaz & Vasco da Gama
 
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The voyages of Bartholomew Diaz & Vasco da Gama and their quest to discover the sea route to India
Views: 7847 Mapped History
The Route to India
 
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The second video in the planned series examining the advent of colonialism in India.   I decided to take you back 200 more years to give you context of how the sea route to India was discovered, which played a huge role in the motivation to increase the scale of trade with Asia.   Why did Europeans come to India in ships? Were they trying to unlock an achievement in Civilization V?   Conquerors: How Portugal Forged the First Global Empire, the book that inspired this video https://www.amazon.com/Conquerors-Portugal-Forged-Crowley-2016-08-04/dp/B01K92Z36Y/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&sr=&dpID=51qwUs7c4cL&preST=_SY344_BO1,204,203,200_QL70_&dpSrc=detail   Please feel free to ask me anything, or talk to me about anything. Including how I made this video. I'd love to hear you out! Backpackers photo: http://ucd.hwstatic.com/propertyimages/5/56976/1.jpg Backpackers photo 3: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8bK89dC88tI Columbus’ Article on wiki, Sources: Dias discovery shifting Portuguese attention to going around Africa: Murphy, Patrick J.; Coye, Ray W. (2013). Mutiny and Its Bounty: Leadership Lessons from the Age of Discovery. Yale University Press. Columbus’ tyranny: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/aug/07/books.spain Global Maritime Trade, Portugal’s proprietary knowledge- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F0MTbIVX4v8&index=24&list=PL49C7AA14331CFEF3 Portuguese Miniatures: http://theminiaturespage.com/news/291561 Old maps  http://historic-cities.huji.ac.il/search_a_z.html Free explosion sample: http://www.freeactionscript.com/2008/12/animated-explosion-effect/ Explosion effects: http://www.youtube.com/blinkfarm Empire : Total War - Navy Battles Trailer:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YY_BqeUaDN0 Origin of Chili peppers: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-04/uoc--bot041614.php Bering Land Bridge and DNA evidence of native americans to east asians. http://theconversation.com/first-americans-lived-on-land-bridge-for-thousands-of-years-genetics-study-suggests-23747 William Style of Langley: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/british-school-17th-century-portrait-of-william-style-of-langley-t02308 Monopoly Buildings: http://bigredbat.blogspot.com/2015_02_01_archive.html Aircraft carrier: http://someone1fy.deviantart.com/art/Kriegsmarine-Aircraft-Carrier-and-battleship-427394740 submarine top view:http://igorkutuzov.deviantart.com/art/Nemo-Class-Space-Submarine-123985379 De Houtman: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Cornelis-de-Houtman Linschoten’s book: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbc3&fileName=rbc0001_2007kis1964006000001page.db&recNum=51 Linschotens map of East Indies: http://www.nla.gov.au/apps/cdview/?pi=nla.map-rm4335-sd&rgn=&prevwidth=400&width=1200 Scurvy 1: http://www.angrysnowboarder.com/folder/uploads/2014/01/Picture-229.png Scurvy 1: http://www.angrysnowboarder.com/folder/uploads/2014/01/Picture-229.png
Views: 759 undopandu
Columbus' Expedition
 
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Columbus is (almost) a young captain who explores the seas trying to find a new route to India. In his search for an alternative route, he discovers something else - something much larger than India. Directed by: Asbjørn Bratsbjerg, Martin Androvich & Rasmus Bruun Filmed by: Rasmus Bruun Editing & Sound design: Martin Androvich In association with CreativeJumpTV. http://www.youtube.com/user/creativejumptv
Views: 629 Martin Androvich
The Great Age of Exploration 1400 1550 Documentary
 
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The Great Age of Exploration (1400-1550) Documentary Discovery Education Documentary :This two-part program takes students through the history of the Great Age of Exploration, focusing on the period from 1400 to the mid-1550s. Students learn about the shift from the Medieval to the Renaissance era, the trade of Asian luxury goods, the quest to find sea routes to Asia, Prince Henry the Navigator, Columbus, the early slave trade, and Spanish and Portuguese colonization. Subscribe - never miss a video!
Views: 40248 DCE House
Happy Columbus Day 2017. No apologies, no whining!
 
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Happy Columbus Day. Seeking a way around the Muslim invasion of Europe, cutting off the trade routes to India, forcing Christopher Columbus to an alternate route to India.
Views: 310 Mason Weaver
Discovery of sea route to India.
 
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did anyone of you travelled to India from sea,if your answer is yes. do you know how this route is dicovere? to know the answer watch this video till end. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - subscribe me on YouTube:-https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCESOalSG4q6yWpx31oV7s-Q follow me on :-https://www.facebook.com/Learn-It-580322615691944/ support us on:-https://www.patreon.com/nagasai - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - Keep learning!
Views: 1370 learn It
Columbus: Searching for India
 
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Our man Chris goes searching for a better route to India, but will he find someone to fund his trip?
Views: 33 Mark Maidique
Land And Sea Route By European Explorers
 
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Social Studies iMovie Project
Views: 657 Sarah Gina
Christopher Columbus
 
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Christopher Columbus - Another video clip from the Drive Thru History series and my friends at http://www.ColdWaterMedia.com Christopher Columbus was born in 1451 in beautiful Genoa, Italy. He was raised in the shadows of medieval gates behind him and the open sea in front of him -- the perfect backdrop for a boy looking for adventure. Christopher's father was a respectable middle-class man who made a career of weaving wool. But Columbus had bigger plans than spending his life working with sheep fur. He had heard the call of the ocean, the lure of the sea. Christopher Columbus set about learning his trade as a teenager, traveling the trade routes across Europe and becoming an expert in navigation. He may have also helped with a bit of "privateering" in the war against the Moors. Although Christopher Columbus reached his goal of becoming a sea captain, he was not content to simply follow the traditional trade routes and make a nice living. No, he had big plans, and he was willing to risk everything to make them a reality. During this period, land trade between India, China, and Europe dwindled, because the Muslims had effectively created a blockade of the trade routes, including the famous Silk Road. Many Europeans were wondering, "How do we solve this trade problem?" Along comes a mathematician named Paolo Toscanelli, toiling away quietly at a cathedral in Florence, Italy, who proposes a new theory of reaching the East by sailing west. Then along comes Christopher Columbus, who believes he's called by God to find a new trade route, and help fulfill the Great Commission. However, before Christopher Columbus could set sail, he needed official sponsorship from a throne. So around the year 1485, Columbus came up with a bold proposal. To read more about the incredible life and journeys of Christopher Columbus and how he influenced the course of American History, please visit http://www.allabouthistory.org/christopher-columbus.htm
Views: 24582 Randall Niles
Columbus's Log
 
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A completely baseless (but probably true) account from Columbus about finding a route to "India" (aka the Americas) through the voice of Natalie Frank . . . Well, sort of.
Views: 13 Vicente Nunez
Columbus & the New World (Jay-Z's "Empire State of Mind Parody)
 
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Love him or hate him, Columbus is a great place to start our Fall Semester of American History. Get a free 30-Day Trial of AUDIBLE: http://www.audibletrial.com/mrbettsclass Support MrBettsClass at http://patreon.com/MrBettsClass MrBettsClass T-Shirt: http://www.redbubble.com/people/mrbettsclass/works/24037958-mr-betts-class-official-t-shirt?asc=u Historical Parody/Skits every Thursday Follow on Twitter: http://twitter.com/MrBettsClass Instagram: http://instagram.com/MrBettsClass Like on FaceBook: http://facebook.com/MrBettsClass "En la Brisa" Music by Dan-O at http://DanoSongs.com Yeah we out that Dark Age, cruising through the Renaissance Ever since the Crusades, Asian goods what we want Friends of the Venetians, Ottomans’ got routes to there But Venice ain’t gonna share, Prince Henry he don’t care School of Navigation, Henry starts in Portugal to Sail the sea of darkness, African coast, Bartolomeu Dias goes from Lisbon, south to the Cape of Storms Later comes de Gama to Calicut, eastern sea route’s born Ask me how they do that, the astrolabe Latitude we know, longitude, for that, we pray But we got the best maps, better cartography Learned it from the Muslims, speak of them, they had to flee After Granada, the Reconquista Finally complete, Ferd and Is looking east-a Want a trade route, oh so very desperately They would fund my 3 ships setting sail westernly to the New World, continents I mistook for Asia In 1492 This is a New World? Wait, is this not Indonesia Oh well, guess it will do I found a New World, New World, New World It didn’t take long ‘til others seeking fortune came Conquistadors with their swords seeking gold and fame Natives think the are gods, or is that a rumor Aztecs, look out! Cortez coming, ganking Montezuma Atahualpa’s kidnapped, ransom paid but it’s a trap Francisco Pizarro got Inca in his grasp With their guns, and cannons, better run, from these men But no feet are outrunning the diseases that they brought with them And millions fall dead, millions more are enslaved Forced to mine for silver and gold, dig their own graves Encomienda says it’s right, it’s all okay If you making Christians, you can have ‘em as slaves Bartolomé de las Casas Says this is evil, vosotros, please stop this Others will cross the sea, to get in the game For now colonies are all part of New Spain Here comes Portugal trying to get some Pope draws a line of demarcation Amerigo Vespucci makes it clear This is better than Asia This is a new tierra, tierra New World, soon comes Cabot, Cartier, Hudson, Everybody wants some Piece of the New World Still I was first European Don’t count Leif Erikson To reach the New World, New World, New World
Views: 37354 MrBettsClass
Magellan's Voyage 1519
 
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Magellan's Voyage 1519
Views: 63140 Daniel Izzo
National Museum Pre-Columbian & Western Arts Gallery
 
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National Museum Pre-Columbian & Western Arts Gallery. These art objects cover the pre 1492 period when Christopher Columbus unknowingly reached present-day USA in search of the new sea route to India and South-Eat Asia. Most of the objects belong to Mexico, Peru, Maya, Inca, the North-West coast of America, Panama, Costa Rica and El Salvador. We hereby introduce ourselves as publishers of a uniquely conceptualized newspaper –one of its kind- for the students and the school. The paper nonetheless, plays an important role in information dissemination to the students, teachers, parents/guardians and anybody related to the education field. Besides it’s a window to the world of education-incorporating the latest information and views for the benefit and use of one and all. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Artist: http://audionautix.com/
Views: 51 RAD NETWORK
Discovery of the sea route to India
 
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The first trip directly made from Europe to India through the Atlantic Ocean was under the command of the Portuguese navigator and explorer Vasco da Gama, during the reign of Manuel I in 1497–1499. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 3784 Audiopedia
The Search For The Northwest Passage - Part 2 of 2 (Exploration Documentary) | Timeline
 
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The Historical Story of Finding the Holy Grail of Exploration, the Northwest Passage The search for a sea route across the top of the world linking Europe to Asia - the fabled Northwest Passage - was one of the most difficult and dangerous in the history of exploration. 2005 marks the 100th anniversary of Roald Amundsen's discovery of the elusive route. The original 1845 expedition led by Sir John Franklin resulted in Franklin and his entire team of 128 men disappearing whilst searching for the passage. What happened to Franklin's expedition is one of the Arctic's most enduring mysteries, Was the expedition poisoned by its own supplies? Did some members of the expedition commit cannibalism or were they killed by the local Inuit? It wasn't until 1903, that an expedition finally found a way through which was lead by Roald Amundsen. His success owed much to the experience of those who had gone before him. But unlike them, he also understood that to survive in such conditions, he had to learn from the native Inuit. The skills Amundsen learnt in the Arctic would later pave the way for his successful assault on the South Pole. The two-part series concentrates on these two famous expeditions. The stories are told using dramatic reconstructions, CGI and documentary techniques. New information sheds light on what happened to Franklin's expedition and also shows how Amundsen was able to succeed when so many before had failed. Documentary first broadcast in 2005. Content licensed from Digital Rights Group (DRG). Produced by ITN Productions.
Where Did The First Americans Come From?
 
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At some point, humans made their way to America. When did this happen, and how can we confirm the date? Watch More ►► How Did We Get Here?: http://dne.ws/1SN4rqA Read More: Evolution of Modern Humans http://anthro.palomar.edu/homo2/mod_homo_4.htm “All people today are classified as Homo sapiens. Our species of humans first began to evolve nearly 200,000 years ago in association with technologies not unlike those of the early Neandertals.” Genome analysis pins down arrival and spread of first Americans http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/07/150721134917.htm “An international team of researchers compared the genomes of 31 living Native Americans, Siberians and people from Oceania with 23 ancient Native American genomes to establish a timeline for the arrival and spread of Amerindian populations.” ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Julia Wilde on Twitter https://twitter.com/julia_sci DNews on Facebook https://facebook.com/DiscoveryNews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com Download the TestTube App: http://testu.be/1ndmmMq
Views: 538647 Seeker
How Magellan circumnavigated the globe - Ewandro Magalhaes
 
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View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-magellan-circumnavigated-the-globe-ewandro-magalhaes On September 6, 1522, the "Victoria" sailed into harbor in southern Spain. The battered vessel and its 18 sailors were all that remained of a fleet that had departed three years before. Yet her voyage was considered a success, for the "Victoria" had achieved something unprecedented – the first circumnavigation of the globe. Ewandro Magalhaes shares the story of Magellan’s journey. Lesson by Ewandro Magalhaes, animation by TED-Ed.
Views: 391217 TED-Ed
Arrival of Europeans to India | Why Europeans arrived to India | Foundation of British Empire in Ind
 
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Download our app : http://examb.in/app First European contacts. In 1497, the Portuguese king Manuel I sent the navigator Vasco da Gama to find a sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa. Da Gama reached the port of Calicut on the Malabar coast on June 18, 1498, and his fleet returned to Lisbon, Portugal, in 1499. The Venetians were Europe's main traders in Asian spices, which they bought in Egypt.The Portuguese set up a trading empire in the Indian Ocean, capturing and fortifying all the leading trading ports. They controlled the major sea routes between India, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. The Portuguese made Goa their capital in India. The city became an important European settlement. The Portuguese supremacy in the Indian Ocean lasted for just over a hundred years. East India companies. The British East India Company was founded in 1600. The Dutch East India Company was formally incorporated two years later, although the Dutch merchants of Amsterdam had been trading in the Indian Ocean as early as 1595. The arrival of the British and the Dutch in India was unwelcome to the Portuguese, who tried to keep control of the Asian trade. The British East India Company, by contrast, was much weaker. In the 1600's it acquired three independent sovereign settlements in India, Madras (now Chennai), Bombay (now Mumbai), and Calcutta (now Kolkata), and each grew into substantial trading ports. The ports were all fortified with sea walls and cannon. The British company, like the Dutch, raised a small army of professional soldiers. After 1700, the British East India Company was strong enough to equip a large number of well-armed ships for trading in the Indian Ocean. Rivalry between Britain and France. In the 1720's the French government granted a charter to a French East India Company to trade with India. The French made their headquarters at Pondicherry in southern India. Within 20 years or so the French had become very powerful in India and were competing successfully with the British. The commercial competition between the two companies soon led to political quarrels. In the 1740's the French and British supported rival Indian rulers in internal wars. In 1755 an unexpected blow fell on the British East India Company. The Muslim nawab of Bengal province, Siraj al-Daulah, disagreed with the company over commercial privileges claimed by the British. The nawab led an army against Calcutta, and captured the city. suffocation and heat. The exact number of deaths is disputed, but the so-called Black Hole of Calcutta incident further worsened relations between British and Indians. When the news of the fall of Calcutta reached Madras, the British sent Colonel Robert Clive to Bengal to regain Calcutta. He was also a skilful politician. Clive not only recovered Calcutta, but also led the company's troops to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Siraj al-Daulah was replaced by a puppet ruler, Foundation of the British Empire in India. Historians regard the year 1757 as the starting point of the British Empire in India, even though large parts of the country remained under the rule of Indian princes. Growth of the East India Company. By 1765, the East India Company had decided to set aside the nominal Mughal governor of Bengal province, the nawab. The company itself became the dewan, or financial controller, holding its office under a farman (proclamation) granted by the Mughal emperor in Delhi. Bengal's prosperous rice agriculture yielded enormous tax revenues to the East India Company. This financial advantage helped the company to raise a large army of professional Indian soldiers, trained and commanded by British officers. From 1772, under the company's first governor general of Bengal, Warren Hastings, the British began to expand toward northern India. Hastings was a skilful diplomat and politician. He contributed much to the success of the East India Company's government in Bengal. But his use of violent methods to suppress Indian opposition, and his treatment of fellow British officials in India, aroused great anger in Britain. Reform of company administration. These corrupt administrative practices were ended by Lord Cornwallis, who was appointed governor general of India in 1786. The British Parliament had passed Acts in 1773 and in 1784 to bring the East India Company under the control of a British government minister. Lord Cornwallis was given the task of reforming British administration in India and of establishing good relations with the Indian princes.
Views: 9118 Exambin
Mystery of the Bermuda Triangle - Full Documentary
 
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https://www.youtube.com/user/PioneerProductionsUK ...The Bermuda Triangle is a mythical section of the Atlantic Ocean roughly bounded by Miami, Bermuda and Puerto Rico where dozens of ships and airplanes have disappeared. Unexplained circumstances surround some of these accidents, including one in which the pilots of a squadron of U.S. Navy bombers became disoriented while flying over the area; the planes were never found. Other boats and planes have seemingly vanished from the area in good weather without even radioing distress messages. But although myriad fanciful theories have been proposed regarding the Bermuda Triangle, none of them prove that mysterious disappearances occur more frequently there than in other well-traveled sections of the ocean. In fact, people navigate the area every day without incident. The area referred to as the Bermuda Triangle, or Devil’s Triangle, covers about 500,000 square miles of ocean off the southeastern tip of Florida. When Christopher Columbus sailed through the area on his first voyage to the New World, he reported that a great flame of fire (probably a meteor) crashed into the sea one night and that a strange light appeared in the distance a few weeks later. He also wrote about erratic compass readings, perhaps because at that time a sliver of the Bermuda Triangle was one of the few places on Earth where true north and magnetic north lined up. After gaining widespread fame as the first person to sail solo around the globe, Joshua Slocum disappeared on a 1909 voyage from Martha’s Vineyard to South America. Though it’s unclear exactly what happened, many sources later attributed his death to the Bermuda Triangle. William Shakespeare’s play “The Tempest,” which some scholars claim was based on a real-life Bermuda shipwreck, may have enhanced the area’s aura of mystery. Nonetheless, reports of unexplained disappearances did not really capture the public’s attention until the 20th century. An especially infamous tragedy occurred in March 1918 when the USS Cyclops, a 542-foot-long Navy cargo ship with over 300 men and 10,000 tons of manganese ore on board, sank somewhere between Barbados and the Chesapeake Bay. The Cyclops never sent out an SOS distress call despite being equipped to do so, and an extensive search found no wreckage. “Only God and the sea know what happened to the great ship,” U.S. President Woodrow Wilson later said. In 1941 two of the Cyclops’ sister ships similarly vanished without a trace along nearly the same route. A pattern allegedly began forming in which vessels traversing the Bermuda Triangle would either disappear or be found abandoned. Then, in December 1945, five Navy bombers carrying 14 men took off from a Fort Lauderdale, Florida, airfield in order to conduct practice bombing runs over some nearby shoals. But with his compasses apparently malfunctioning, the leader of the mission, known as Flight 19, got severely lost. All five planes flew aimlessly until they ran low on fuel and were forced to ditch at sea. That same day, a rescue plane and its 13-man crew also disappeared. After a massive weeks-long search failed to turn up any evidence, the official Navy report declared that it was “as if they had flown to Mars.” Bermuda Triangle Theories and Counter-Theories By the time author Vincent Gaddis coined the phrase “Bermuda Triangle” in a 1964 magazine article, additional mysterious accidents had occurred in the area, including three passenger planes that went down despite having just sent “all’s well” messages. Charles Berlitz, whose grandfather founded the Berlitz language schools, stoked the legend even further in 1974 with a sensational bestseller about the legend. Since then, scores of fellow paranormal writers have blamed the triangle’s supposed lethalness on everything from aliens, Atlantis and sea monsters to time warps and reverse gravity fields, whereas more scientifically minded theorists have pointed to magnetic anomalies, waterspouts or huge eruptions of methane gas from the ocean floor. In all probability, however, there is no single theory that solves the mystery. As one skeptic put it, trying to find a common cause for every Bermuda Triangle disappearance is no more logical than trying to find a common cause for every automobile accident in Arizona. Moreover, although storms, reefs and the Gulf Stream can cause navigational challenges there, maritime insurance leader Lloyd’s of London does not recognize the Bermuda Triangle as an especially hazardous place. Neither does the U.S. Coast Guard, which says: “In a review of many aircraft and vessel losses in the area over the years, there has been nothing discovered that would indicate that casualties were the result of anything other than physical causes. No extraordinary factors have ever been identified.”
Views: 1197211 Wise Wanderer
Children's: History 1 - Christopher Columbus
 
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http://xoax.net/ Video Page: http://xoax.net/children/crs/other/lessons/history/ This children's video teaches the story of the explorer Christopher Columbus and his discovery of America. Please submit all questions to our forum: http://xoax.net/forum/ Copyright 2010 XoaX.net LLC
Views: 419571 xoaxdotnet
KERALA: Vasco da Gama on par with Columbus?
 
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In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue. In 1497, da Gama set sail, too. Both voyages had new-era-in-world-history consequences, connecting separate hemispheres with an emerging Europe. SUPPORT THE NOMADIC PROFESSOR: Subscribe to this channel! And feel free to chip in so that I can continue to make more on-location mini-lectures. Anything helps! Here: https://www.patreon.com/bePatron?c=723466 Visit nomadicprofessor.com
Views: 2806 The Nomadic Professor
Reconsider Columbus Day, Abolish Columbus Day!
 
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Reconsider Columbus Day, Abolish Columbus Day to replace it by Indigenous Peoples Day. Honor the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Christopher Columbus was lost at sea until he was discovered by Native Americans. No More Columbus Day! Watch Next thanksgiving: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Boxu2BVQm7w Follow us @ https://www.facebook.com/iloveancestry https://twitter.com/LovingAncestry http://iloveancestry.tumblr.com http://pinterest.com/iloveancestry https://www.youtube.com/iloveancestry https://www.google.com/+iloveancestry "Columbus" by Gray Wolf: For starters, did you know, the real reason Columbus was 'sailing the ocean blue' was because he raped the 13 year old daughter of a Spanish Duchess? They couldn't kill him without angering the Italian court, so Queen Isabella just sent him on a mission they didn't think he would return from. It is also ON PUBLIC RECORD that he rewarded his soldiers by giving them Native to rape,and Eat. At times, they would make an example of a Native by cutting his hands off and tying them around his neck, then telling him to go and 'share the message' with the rest of his tribe. Other times they would go and massacre an entire village, unconcerned with the age of their victims. (It's no wonder the 'elite' gave him a holiday..) When Columbus first came ashore and was greeted by the Arawak native Americans with smiles, gifts and food, he wrote in his log: "They brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things ... they willingly traded everything they owned ... They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane ... They would make fine servants ... With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want." From the very outset Columbus was writing about conquering and enslaving the natives. Meanwhile the Arawaks, brought gifts, prepared food, and traded everything they owned. Columbus wrote that the natives, "are so naïve and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone." He also wrote, "I believe that they would easily be made Christians, because it seemed to me that they had no religion." The European settlers took a free society without possessions, property, currency, hierarchy or written religion and replaced it with today's America -- the world's shining beacon of selfish materialism, where every square inch of land/water/airspace is publicly or privately owned, taxed, and governed through a corrupt hierarchical system of laws and regulations where Mother Nature's gifts are treated as personal possessions to be bought, sold, owned and defended. "Columbus wrote: 'As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts.' The information that Columbus wanted most was: Where is the gold? ... His second expedition was given seventeen ships and more than twelve hundred men. The aim was clear: slaves and gold ... They went from island to island in the Caribbean, taking Indians as captives ... roaming the island in gangs looking for gold, taking women and children as slaves for sex and labor." "It was his [Columbus'] avowed aim to 'convert the heathen Indians to our Holy Faith' that warranted the enslaving and exporting of thousands of Native Americans. That such treatment resulted in complete genocide did not matter as much as that these natives had been given the opportunity of everlasting life through their exposure to Christianity. The same sort of thinking also gave Westerners license to rape women. In his own words, Columbus described how he himself 'took [his] pleasure' with a native woman after whipping her 'soundly' with a piece of rope." Helen Ellerbe, "The Dark Side of Christian History" (86-88). By 1496 the settlers were responsible for 34 million native American deaths. We are not talking about some guy who accidentally bumped into America looking for a spice-trade route to India, but that's what the standardized textbooks continue to tell our children about him. Personally, I don't even know why the mainstream historical texts say he 'discovered America' since Natives were obviously in America long before he was, AND for the fact that most of the tribes he slaughtered or enslaved were in the Caribbean. (There is ZERO evidence that he even found 'the mainland of North America'. There are some claims that he landed somewhere in the Florida Keys, but it's hard to say if they're true at this point.) (Video by Nu Heightz Cinema)
Views: 3483 I Love Ancestry
When did Vasco da Gama find new sea route to India
 
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When did Vasco da Gama find new sea route to India - Find out more explanation for : 'When did Vasco da Gama find new sea route to India' only from this channel. Information Source: google
Views: 22 Asmaul Husna
Voyages - Segment 1 of 3 - "Vasco Da Gama"
 
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Copyright 1992, The Mariners' Museum.